Tag Archive | PPGIS

New Research on Legal Issues and Validation of Crowdmapping

Rak, Andriy (2013). Legal Issues and Validation of Volunteered Geographic Information.

Abstract: The Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) provides access to authoritative geographic datasets of Canada, which are the source of accurate and reliable data. The process of acquiring, updating and maintaining such datasets using traditional approaches, requires both time and costly resources. As a result, in many cases the datasets are out of date because of the high cost of maintenance. An alternative approach to reliably create and update authoritative datasets is linked to its integration with Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). VGI provides a vast source of spatial information to government, industry and citizens. However, the integration of VGI with CGDI generates several questions, with VGI quality and legal issues at the forefront.

This research has investigated methods for assessing the quality of VGI, and describes the importance of a link between VGI and legal liability in the need for integration of VGI with CGDI. This research developed a prototype to validate data quality and examined legal liability issues around VGI to discover a strategy for possible integration of VGI with CGDI datasets. The research also provides four primary risk management techniques for CGDI to manage risks resulted from incorporating VGI into their datasets.

M.Sc.E. thesis, Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering Technical Report No. 283, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, 128 pp. (April 2013)

Zero Geography: Situating Neogeography

Situating Neogeography: Special Issue of Environment and Planning A

The special issue of Environment and Planning A on neogeography that Mark Graham edited with Matthew Wilson is now out an available to download. It will undoubtedly be a useful collection for anyone interested in thinking about the coming-togethers of information, the internet, and place.

For table of contents and links visit Zero Geography: Situating Neogeography: Special Issue of Environment and Planning A.

 

USGS Release: “Crowdsourcing” the National Map

“Crowdsourcing”: Looking at New Ways to Map Structures in Colorado

Contact Information:
U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey
Office of Communications and Publishing
12201 Sunrise Valley Dr, MS 119
Reston, VA 20192

Greg Matthews: Phone: 303-202-4446

Mark Newell: Phone: 573-308-3850

In light of swiftly changing technical landscapes and increasing uses of social networking, the USGS is exploring a new approach to the volunteer program, and is launching a project to test options for volunteer participation in providing data to The National Map. The project involves mapping man-made structures and facilities, such as schools and fire stations, in the state of Colorado. Using an internet mapping application, volunteers can help the USGS update The National Map by correcting or adding information about structures. “Even members of the public who can’t tell a sandstone from a rhyolite but have internet access can now help the USGS keep its popular maps up to date through our new experiment in crowd sourcing,” said USGS Director Marcia McNutt. “Correctly locating and identifying fire stations, police stations, schools, and hospitals not only makes USGS maps more useful, but can literally save a life.”

Over the past two decades, the USGS National Geospatial Program sponsored various forms of volunteer map data collection projects. Volunteers helped the USGS improve its maps during this period, by annotating paper maps, collecting data using GPS units, and submitting data using a web-based tool. However, in 2008, the volunteer mapping program was suspended as new methods for using volunteer data were being studied. In recent years, new web- and mobile-based technologies have made it easier to create, combine, and share maps. Recent events have shown how well these technologies support the rapid and relevant production of geographic information. If the Colorado pilot project is successful in attracting volunteers and capturing data for use in The National Map, the program may be expanded to other areas in the future. This project offers volunteers an opportunity to participate in providing data to The National Map and US Topo map products. For more information, interested Colorado volunteers can visit the National Map Corps website.

The National Map Corps website.

via USGS Release: “Crowdsourcing”: Looking at New Ways to Map Structures in Colorado 8/17/2012 8:00:00 AM.

Seeing through the Crowds: Crowdmaps Visualize User-Reported Data for Public Health

by Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Geoplace.com, July 9, 2012

Crowd-sensing and citizen reporting of incidents are becoming increasingly common, with applications ranging from air-quality monitoring to building a database of all the Automated External Defibrillators in a major city (www.uphs.upenn.edu/news/News_Releases/2011/12/myheartmap-challenge) to protest movements, political activism and citizen journalism, as witnessed in the 2011/2012 “Occupy Movement” and “Arab Spring” events.A comprehensive review of the main technologies and standards involved in this domain was published in the International Journal of Health Geographics in December 2011 (dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-10-67). This article, however, focuses on the use of “crowdmaps” for visualizing crowdsourced data. Crowd-generated reports and other material often produce Big Data: large, continuous streams of data that pose major challenges when trying to visualize, understand and make sense of them, particularly when attempting to do so in real time. This article presents several examples of crowdmaps, covering a diverse range of topics in which the spatiotemporal distribution (and content) of the corresponding crowdsourced data are displayed on a familiar, interactive (geographic) map interface.
For full text of the article, visit Seeing through the Crowds: Crowdmaps Visualize User-Reported Data | Articles – Publishing Titles | GeoPlace.

On Crowdsourcing, Crisis Mapping and Data Protection Standards

by Patrick Meier, iRevolution, February 5, 2012

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) just published their official Data Protection Manual. … At the same time, the 150-page report does not mention social media even once. This is perfectly understandable given IOM’s work, but there is no denying that disaster-affected communities are becoming more digitally-enabled—and thus increasingly the source of important, user-generated information. Moreover, it is difficult to ascertain exactly how to apply all of IOM’s Data Protection Principles to this new digital context and the work of the Standby Volunteer Task Force (SBTF). …

For full text of this article visit On Crowdsourcing, Crisis Mapping and Data Protection Standards | iRevolution.

People Protection Standards 1.0: Satellite Sentinel Project Team Responds to Comments

People Protection Standards 1.0: Response by the Satellite Sentinel Project Team at Harvard Humanitarian Initiative to Recent Comments Concerning the Global Brief Article Entitled: Crisis Mapping Needs an Ethical Compass

by Satellite Sentinel Project Team, February 2012

When Raymond, Howarth, and Hutson wrote our argument for the development of comprehensive ethical and technical standards for the crisis mapping community, we were aware of last year’s meeting hosted by World Vision in Geneva and the 2010 meeting in Phnom Penh hosted by Oxfam Australia on Early Warning for Protection. … These efforts are laudable, much needed, and constructive. They are also by themselves insufficient to address the challenges that our field and those we seek to assist face as a result of the work we all do. While important initial steps, the meetings, protocols, and blog posts regarding these issues do not create a comprehensive code of ethics and technical standards by themselves. The issue is not whether there have been meetings or working groups. The issue is whether the crisis mapping community will decide to self-regulate in a proactive way before serious lapses by any of us put civilians in jeopardy. …

For full text of the article on this important topic, visit Satellite Sentinel Project.

Tribes Effectively Barred From Making High-Tech Maps

An article from 2007, but still very relevant today.

by Kelly Hearn, National Geographic News, April 26, 2007

Tribes in Southeast Asia are being kept from using the latest high-tech gadgets to help them win land rights. That’s the outcry from activist groups that have been helping indigenous communities mix computers and handheld navigation devices with paints, yarn, and cardboard to make simple but accurate three-dimensional terrain models. … But in Malaysia and the Philippines, the practice—dubbed participatory GIS—has sparked a legal backlash, activists say. For example, Philippine lawmakers have changed an existing law so that only officially recognized engineers “could do anything related to measuring space,” said Dave De Vera, director of the Philippine Association for Intercultural Development. …

For full text of the article, visit Tribes Effectively Barred From Making High-Tech Maps.

Call for Papers for Special Issue on Public Participation GIS

‘Looking Forward to the Past: Reflections on Using Applied PPGIS to Define Community’

Call for Papers for a Special Issue of the Journal of Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA Journal)

Guest Editors: Dr. Michelle M. Thompson and Kelly D. Owens
Department of Planning and Urban Studies, University of New Orleans

The application of geographic information systems (GIS) continues to emerge as the tools are adopted by both information and social sciences.  The ability to share dwindling resources by community, municipal and university partners has moved from the desktop to the information highway.  Early definitions of public participation geographic information systems (PPGIS) emphasized the university as the change agent since the technology drove collaboration. Resident-led PPGIS models focus on the collection and distribution of neighborhood level data using distributed web-based interfaces.

This special issue of the URISA Journal, scheduled for publication in November 2012, is intended to update the available body of applied GIS literature.  In particular, research should explore problems or questions on PPGIS strategies including effectiveness measures and implementation at varying levels of delivery. The discussion should include the changes in technology and data definitions including ‘volunteered geographic information’ or ‘VGI’ in the PPGIS model. Research may consider what influence of ‘crowdsourcing’ as a means to move PPGIS from participatory to action research, as well as, the impact on public policy in local and international spheres.  Research that considers PPGIS in emerging markets, shrinking cities or post-disaster environments and how the application of a PPGIS can aid in relearning pedagogy are considered an important perspective.

While it is important to consider the foundations of PPGIS and the traditional definitions of ‘partnership’, articles should describe how, or if, the model of participation has changed. When using contemporary examples, describe their ethical considerations in emerging markets from any part of the earth and address both earth and human-environment research.

For more information, visit http://www.urisa.org/Journal_PPGIS

Public Participation in Environmental Decision-making

A document that might be of interest to the participatory mapping community:

PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISIONMAKING

A new report from the National Research Council probes deeply into the positive and occasionally negative effects of public participation on the environmental policymaking process.

It is practically an article of faith in democratic societies that openness and public participation are presumptively good, but that doesn’t mean it’s true. On closer inspection, however, including empirical studies of participatory processes, the new NRC report was able to reach some encouraging conclusions.

“When done well, public participation improves the quality and legitimacy of a decision and builds the capacity of all involved to engage in the policy process.  It also can enhance trust and understanding among parties,” the report said.

On the other hand, “public participation, if not done well, may not provide any of these benefits — in some circumstances, participation has done more harm than good.”

The 250 page report, including a valuable 50 page bibliography, elucidates some of the conditions for successful participation and those that are likely to lead to failure.

….

See “Public Participation in Environmental Assessment and Decision Making” by Thomas Dietz and Paul C. Stern, editors, National Academies Press, 2008:

http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12434

Source: Steven Aftergood, Secrecy News, Volume 2008 Iusse No. 86, Sept 4, 2008

 

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